Bovine Tuberculosis—International Perspectives on Epidemiology and Management

Frontiers

Andrew W. Byrne, Adrian R. Allen, Daniel J. O'Brien and Michele A. Miller

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a prominent zoonotic pathogen on the world stage, with significant impacts on animal and human health, and economic well-being.Modeling approaches were used to gain insights and make inferences on a number of different problems in bTB management.The use of genetic selection to improve animal health has emerged from recent advances in genomics and their application to epidemiological data. Resistance to bTB is a heritable trait in cattle, and provides an additional tool by which the disease can be controlled. Genomic methods are revolutionizing traditional molecular epidemiological approaches to disease source attribution, principally due to their much superior resolution. Application to bTB infectious systems promises to improve our knowledge of transmission dynamics. In multi-host epidemics, control or eradication of bTB in domestic hosts is often unachievable if disease control in wildlife reservoir populations is not simultaneously implemented. Vaccination with BCG has been shown to reduce disease in humans caused by M. tuberculosis, and Palmer and Thacker have also recently shown its potential for wildlife as well as the diagnostic regent variation, host physiological and immunological status can affect the performance of diagnostic tests. The “human component” of bTB epidemiology and control was highlighted in a number of papers relating to societal values and ethics of bTB control, as well as human zoonotic risk.Although bTB is a global disease, it can be neglected in smaller nations. Borja et al. describe findings of bTB in Fiji in “A Retrospective Study on Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle on Fiji: Study Findings and Stakeholder Responses.”

Source

Frontiers