Southeast Asia hit by dengue outbreak
Thailand is experiencing its biggest outbreak in more than two decades. The Philippines, Vietnam and Malaysia have also reported significant upticks in cases this year. The World Health Organization said there are big increases in Cambodia, Laos, China and Australia too. Health authorities throughout Southeast Asia track the dengue outbreaks every year. Between 2017 and 2018, the numbers dropped but spiked up again this year. According to statistics from Thailand's Ministry of Public Health, until May 13 this year, 20,733 people were infected with dengue. "The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades," says the WHO. "A vast majority of cases are asymptomatic and hence the actual numbers of dengue case are underreported and many cases are misclassified." The WHO estimates that there are about 390 million infections every year.
To Calm Nervous Families, Pakistan Changes Polio Vaccination Tactics
After serious setbacks in April led to a cluster of new polio cases, Pakistan is revamping its vaccination strategy in a renewed effort to wipe out the virus.The country is one of just three — along with Afghanistan and perhaps Nigeria — in which polio is still endemic. Eradication of the virus in Pakistan is crucial to the drive to rid the world of polio, once and for all. Now, vaccination teams will take a friendlier approach, ask fewer questions, make fewer follow-up visits, and stop recording extensive details about the families they visit, Pakistan’s polio eradication program announced.
Paper stickers to monitor pathogens are more effective than swabs
Using paper stickers to collect pathogens on surfaces where antisepsis is required, such as in food processing plants, is easier, and less expensive than swabbing, yet similarly sensitive. "The porous structure of paper seems able to collect and accumulate [bacterial] contamination," said first author Martin In Bobal. the study, the investigators, who specialize in monitoring cheese production, chose to target the organism Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli. The investigators showed that plain paper stickers could trap not only bacterial pathogens and related DNA, but dead, and viable but non-culturable pathogens, which also can pose a threat to public health."A major advantage of stickers is in handling: they are easy to distribute and to collect," the authors concluded.
Panorama #2019-1-Eradication of bovine tuberculosis: a One Health issue
Articles include case studies of bTB control/eradication in Fiji, Canada and Australia, and reports on vaccine development, use of tuberculin and perspectives on developing national strategies. There is also a report on the September 2018 UN high level meeting on tuberculosis, and the importance for zoonotic and bovine tuberculosis.
Eurosurveillance: The re-emergence of HPAI H7N9 Human Infection in Mainland China, 2019
Two years ago pandemic concerns were heightened as the world watched the biggest human outbreak of Avian Influenza on record, in Mainland China. The culprit was H7N9 - which emerged as an LPAI virus in 2013 - but evolved into co-circulating LPAI & HPAI strains in late 2016.
Editorial: Epidemiology of Avian Influenza Viruses
Mathilde C. Paul et al.,
The international dimension and the difficulties in effectively controlling these epidemics, highlight the need for more scientific information in relation to the epidemiology and patterns of the disease in affected countries, especially in East Asia, as well as the need for effective policies against HPAI. This Research Topic aims at contributing to fill this gap. It includes 10 papers. Control can be particularly challenging in endemic areas, such as Indonesia, where multiple HPAI virus subtypes and clades may circulate, as described by Durr et al. Another great challenge of HPAI control is the intense circulation of AI viruses in waterfowl populations, which act as a natural reservoir with periodic spill-over to domestic poultry.The two studies presented by Scott et al. illustrate the relevance of such approaches in the context of early warning systems in disease-free areas. Scenario tree modeling approaches made it possible to assess the pathways of LPAI exposure, as well as to quantify the risk of LPAI and HPAI spread within and between Australian commercial chicken farms.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Vietnam
Vietnam's outbreak began on May 4 in a village in Hau Giang province in the far south of the country, according to a notification from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The report didn't say how many birds died from the virus, but it noted that authorities culled 1,120 of them. The country reported its last H5N1 detection in March.
Antibiotic Application and Resistance in Swine Production in China: Current Situation and Future Perspectives
This paper reviews the consumption of antibiotics in swine production as well as AMR and the development of novel antibiotics or alternatives in China. China unveiled a national plan to tackle antibiotic resistance in August 2016, but more support is needed for the development of new antibiotics or alternatives like plant extracts. Antibiotic resistance has been a major global challenge, so international collaboration between China and Europe is needed.
Chikungunya Outbreak in Bangladesh (2017): Clinical and hematological findings
A massive outbreak of Chikungunya occurred in Bangladesh during the period of April-September, 2017 and over two million people were at risk of getting infected by the virus. A prospective cohort of viremic patients was constituted and analyzed to define the clinical, hematological and long-term aspects of this outbreak. A 35-day long comprehensive survey was conducted in two major, neighboring cities, Dhaka and Mymensingh. One-hundred and eighty-seven clinically proven Chikungunya cases were enrolled in the cross-sectional cohort study. Additionally, a smaller group of 48 Chikungunya patients was monitored for post-infection effects for 12 months. Clinical data revealed that a combination of fever and arthralgia (oligoarthralgia and/or polyarthralgia) was the cardinal hallmark (97.9% of cases) of the infection.
Understanding the Human-to-Human Transmissibility of Nipah
Among the several emerging infectious diseases that the world faces, Nipah virus is of particular concern. This RNA virus that originates in bats has caused sporadic outbreaks in several Asian countries, resulting in severe disease and death with mortality rates reaching 70%. Bangladesh is one of the countries that regularly reports Nipah cases. While largely considered a zoonotic disease with poor human-to-human transmissibility – the prerequisite for a pandemic – it is not exclusively so. This study includes 248 cases that occurred in Bangladesh over a 14-year period. Nikolay and colleagues analyzed data on all confirmed or probable Nipah cases reported between April 2001 and April 2014. Contacts of cases were defined as those who had in-person physical (touching) contact or had verbal contact (ie, in the same room talking with the patient) with a patient within 15 days of disease onset.