Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Vietnam
Vietnam's outbreak began on May 4 in a village in Hau Giang province in the far south of the country, according to a notification from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The report didn't say how many birds died from the virus, but it noted that authorities culled 1,120 of them. The country reported its last H5N1 detection in March.
Antibiotic Application and Resistance in Swine Production in China: Current Situation and Future Perspectives
This paper reviews the consumption of antibiotics in swine production as well as AMR and the development of novel antibiotics or alternatives in China. China unveiled a national plan to tackle antibiotic resistance in August 2016, but more support is needed for the development of new antibiotics or alternatives like plant extracts. Antibiotic resistance has been a major global challenge, so international collaboration between China and Europe is needed.
Chikungunya Outbreak in Bangladesh (2017): Clinical and hematological findings
A massive outbreak of Chikungunya occurred in Bangladesh during the period of April-September, 2017 and over two million people were at risk of getting infected by the virus. A prospective cohort of viremic patients was constituted and analyzed to define the clinical, hematological and long-term aspects of this outbreak. A 35-day long comprehensive survey was conducted in two major, neighboring cities, Dhaka and Mymensingh. One-hundred and eighty-seven clinically proven Chikungunya cases were enrolled in the cross-sectional cohort study. Additionally, a smaller group of 48 Chikungunya patients was monitored for post-infection effects for 12 months. Clinical data revealed that a combination of fever and arthralgia (oligoarthralgia and/or polyarthralgia) was the cardinal hallmark (97.9% of cases) of the infection.
Vaccination lags behind in middle-income countries
Indonesia, Iraq and South Africa now rank among the ten countries with the highest number of under-immunized children worldwide, even though these countries are richer than many of their neighbours. What is going on? As the World Health Assembly meets in Geneva, Switzerland, next week, the development community must tackle an emerging conundrum: how do we increase access to vaccines, primary health care and other essential health interventions in countries that can — at least according to their gross national incomes — afford them?
Understanding the Human-to-Human Transmissibility of Nipah
Among the several emerging infectious diseases that the world faces, Nipah virus is of particular concern. This RNA virus that originates in bats has caused sporadic outbreaks in several Asian countries, resulting in severe disease and death with mortality rates reaching 70%. Bangladesh is one of the countries that regularly reports Nipah cases. While largely considered a zoonotic disease with poor human-to-human transmissibility – the prerequisite for a pandemic – it is not exclusively so. This study includes 248 cases that occurred in Bangladesh over a 14-year period. Nikolay and colleagues analyzed data on all confirmed or probable Nipah cases reported between April 2001 and April 2014. Contacts of cases were defined as those who had in-person physical (touching) contact or had verbal contact (ie, in the same room talking with the patient) with a patient within 15 days of disease onset.
Comparative Analysis of Eleven Healthcare-Associated Outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (Mers-Cov) from 2015 to 2017
Since its emergence in 2012, 2,260 cases and 803 deaths due to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported to the World Health Organization. Most cases were due to transmission in healthcare settings, sometimes causing large outbreaks. We analyzed epidemiologic and clinical data of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases from eleven healthcare-associated outbreaks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea between 2015–2017.
On the evolutionary ecology of multidrug resistance in bacteria
Resistance against different antibiotics appears on the same bacterial strains more often than expected by chance, leading to high frequencies of multidrug resistance. There are multiple explanations for this observation, but these tend to be specific to subsets of antibiotics and/or bacterial species, whereas the trend is pervasive. Here, we consider the question in terms of strain ecology: explaining why resistance to different antibiotics is often seen on the same strain requires an understanding of the competition between strains with different resistance profiles.
Indonesia observes World Malaria Day in Bali, highlights 5 provinces that have yet to eradicate the disease
Did you know that five Indonesian provinces have yet to declare themselves Malaria-free? This important fact was highlighted during the observance of this year’s World Malaria Day in Indonesia, which took place today in Bali. Bali is one of 29 provinces which have been declared malaria-free, but the battle is still ongoing in Papua, West Papua, Maluku, North Maluku and East Nusa Tenggara. Perhaps not-so-shockingly, 79% of the country’s malaria cases take place in underdeveloped Papua, according to the Health Ministry.
Information wars: tackling the threat from disinformation on vaccines
It’s true that there are troublesome trolls and bothersome bots leveraging vaccine hesitancy to further their political agendas on social media. But they are small fish compared to other aspects of health misinformation on social media. Users connect and converse with interests in common, or opinion that differ which creates recorded content on the platform. This then allows other users to consume and circulate the content both internally within social media platforms by shares, likes, retweets, hashtags or externally to the social media platform, commonly via email share links. Irrespective of the method used, this sees the discourse become an entity, not only having influence on those that were directly participating in the discourse at the time – but to anyone that stumbles across it thereafter.
BMA continues anti-mosquito campaign after 1,550 Bangkokians hit by dengue
The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) will continue campaigning for Bangkokians to get rid of standing water, which provides perfect conditions for mosquitoes, after 1,550 people were reported to have caught dengue and one patient succumbed to the virus earlier this year. As parts of the campaign, the residents of 4,067 communities, 1,547 schools, 452 temples, 992 hospitals and clinics and some 30,000 to 40,000 work places will be informed to stay alert of a possible dengue outbreak and to get rid of stored water.