Protection from Zika virus may lie in a protein derived from mosquitoes
By targeting a protein found in the saliva of mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, Yale investigators reduced Zika infection in mice. The finding demonstrates how researchers might develop a vaccine against Zika and similar mosquito-borne viruses, the study authors said.
One source of a potential vaccine strategy is the Aedes aegypti mosquito that carries and transmits the virus. A Yale research team recently focused on proteins found in the saliva of these mosquitoes and how they might affect Zika transmission.
Global monitoring of antimicrobial resistance based on metagenomics analyses of urban sewage
Rene S. Hendriksen et al.,
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health, but obtaining representative data on AMR for healthy human populations is difficult. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of untreated sewage to characterize the bacterial resistome from 79 sites in 60 countries. We find systematic differences in abundance and diversity of AMR genes between Europe/North-America/Oceania and Africa/Asia/South-America. Antimicrobial use data and bacterial taxonomy only explains a minor part of the AMR variation that we observe. We find no evidence for cross-selection between antimicrobial classes, or for effect of air travel between sites. However, AMR gene abundance strongly correlates with socio-economic, health and environmental factors, which we use to predict AMR gene abundances in all countries in the world.
Sewage reveals levels of antimicrobial resistance worldwide
Technical University of Denmark
A comprehensive analysis of sewage collected in 74 cities in 60 countries has yielded the first, comparable global data, which show the levels and types of antimicrobial resistant bacteria that are present in mainly healthy people in these countries. The researchers' work shows that most of the variables, which are associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in a country, are related to the sanitary conditions in the country and the population's general state of health. Using the same data from the World Bank, the researchers have also predicted the levels of antimicrobial resistance in 259 countries/territories and they have drawn up a world map of resistance in healthy populations. Contrary to data from traditional methods of analysis, raw data from metagenomics studies can be reused to examine other problems. The researchers from the sewage project are e.g. using data from the study to analyze the occurrence of other disease-causing microorganisms in the sewage. "Analysing sewage can quickly and relatively cheaply show exactly which bacteria abound in an area -- and collecting and analysing sewage doesn't require ethical approval, as the material cannot be traced back to individuals."
Another chapter in global health security
The United States has pledged $150 million to help high-risk countries build their capacity to guard against global disease threats such as the Ebola virus. These efforts are part of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), which aims to ensure all countries can prevent, detect and respond quickly to outbreaks of infectious diseases.
Bird flu outbreak detected in central Vietnam
Vietnam's central Quang Nam province has recently spotted two H5N6 bird flu outbreaks which have hit over 5,000 chickens, a local agriculture center said on Friday. All the affected chickens in a commune of Tien Phuoc district have been culled, and over 10,000 doses of bird flu vaccines are being used among fowls in the commune, said the district's Agricultural Technique Center.
Predicting the unidentified carriers of zika, dengue and yellow fever
Zika, dengue, yellow fever. All these ‘flaviviruses’ have threatened global epidemics in recent years, with outbreaks often emerging seemingly at random in different corners of the world. ‘We developed a machine-learning model that can predict potential unobserved wildlife hosts of flaviviruses,’ explains Pranav Pandit, from the One Health Institute at UC Davis. The model works by analysing data on species known to sometimes play host to flaviviruses, identifying common characteristics, and then comparing them with a database of 10,424 bird and 5,536 mammal species, to find wildlife with similar traits that therefore might be equally likely to act as hosts.
Dengue fever infects 2,282 people, kills one in Jakarta
Jakarta Health Agency head Widyastuti said on Monday that the three areas with the highest prevalence of dengue were West Jakarta, East Jakarta and South Jakarta.To stop the disease from spreading further, she urged residents to actively check for mosquito larvae nests, while the agency would deploy larvae controllers to households as part of a government-sponsored mosquito nest eradication campaign program.
Examining Pregnant Women’s Attitudes Toward a Zika Vaccine Trial
A recent survey study collected data from pregnant and postpartum women in an effort to assess their willingness to participate in a hypothetic Zika virus vaccine trial and their motivations for participating. Information on demographics, prior exposure, and vaccine acceptance was collected. Although there have been previous studies on the willingness of pregnant women to participate in vaccine research, there is significantly less information about pregnant women’s willingness to participate specifically in Zika virus vaccine trials.
Peptide derived from fungi prevents growth of tuberculosis bacteria
Today's cure for TB are antibiotics, but the patients must often undergo several treatments over a long period. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as interesting alternatives in the hunt for new drugs against this disease. Peptides are produced by all organisms, from plants to mammals. They act as nature's own antibiotics, as they kill bacteria rapidly and could also act as antibiotics for humans. Several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were previously tested against tuberculosis bacteria without success, as they have either been toxic to human cells or not sufficiently stable.
Statement of the Twentieth IHR Emergency Committee
The twentieth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) regarding the international spread of poliovirus was convened by the Director General on 19 February 2019 at WHO headquarters with members, advisers and invited Member States attending via teleconference, supported by the WHO secretariat. The Committee unanimously agreed that the risk of international spread of poliovirus remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) and recommended the extension of Temporary Recommendations for a further three months.